T16P15 - Conditions of Sustainable Development Policy

Topic : Sustainable Development and Policy

Panel Chair : Prof.Dr. Hai Phu DO - haiphudo@gmail.com

Objectives and Scientific Relevance of the panel

Call for papers

Session 1

Discussants

Le Ngoc Hung - hungxhh@gmail.com - Institute of Sociology, Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics, Viet Nam - Viet Nam

Suráyabi Ramírez - surayabi.ramirezvaras@ucr.ac.cr - Observatory of Development, University of Costa Rica - Costa Rica

The sustainability of social policy processes: a cross-country qualitative comparative analysis (QCA)

Prof.Dr. Hai Phu DO - haiphudo@gmail.com - Faculty of Public Policy, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences (GASS/VASS) - Viet Nam

This paper analyzes the sustainability of social policy processes with systematic comparative analysis of social policy conditions. It responded to a question what are configurative conditions of social policy to generate the outcomes and impacts and how they are shaped and influenced by configurations of public institutions, in particular in terms of democracy capacity, government policy capacity and government responsibility. Thus, the research focused on analyzing the sub-system conditions through 41 OECD and EU countries in exploiting the configuration logic of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). It can be observed the qualitative comparative analysis among the public institutions and social policy conditions in the policy system, the results of the research were explained through the minimum configurations of key variable conditions.

Key words: Social policy, policy institutions, QCA method, OECD social policy

Reconciling the environmental and climate-related laws and policies with international investment law towards sustainable development-case of Tajikistan

Parviz Odilov - parvizodilov@gmail.com - Yonsei University - Tajikistan

Climatic changes have been strongly impacting ecosystem and environment of our planet. It is projected that our planet being very vulnerable to climatic changes will be strongly impacted in the next 50 years. Therefore, since last decade Tajikistan has been taking a strong leadership towards sustainable development and climate action, by pledging to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to take ambitious steps to pursue domestic adaptation and mitigation measures, and increase performance of economy based on sustainable development principles. In order to achieve these, Tajikistan has been attracting international private investments towards its economy by providing strong investment protections. Nevertheless, laws governing Tajikistan’s international investments are lacking provisions on environmental protection and sustainable development. This may result in conflict of regulatory measures between international investment laws, local sustainable development measures, as well as climate change laws, affecting foreign investments. For instance, environment and climate-related laws on mitigation, such as emission reduction through increase of taxes to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions, laws towards carbon intensive industries to install environmentally sound technologies can affect negatively investments owned by international investors. As well as adaptation measures on managed setbacks in potential disastrous areas can limit international investors on property use. Tajikistan international investment relationships are governed by domestic laws, multilateral and bilateral investment agreements, however they have no norms on sustainable development, neither on environmental protection. Once foreign investors would invest in Tajikistan, new sustainable development measures and climate change laws and policies may trigger foreign investors to initiate or at least threaten to initiate Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) procedures due to regulatory changes and harming investors’ legitimate expectations. Commercial interests of foreign investors do not always coincide with states’ sustainable development goals and climate change measures. This research aims to fill this gap by reconciling Tajikistan’s sustainable development norms with other national and international laws on investment, based on principles of international environmental law and sustainable development. This will avoid risks of liabilities under the ISDS procedures, and foster sustainable development. Otherwise, regulatory measures on sustainable development and climate-related laws would result in financial repercussion of ISDS, and can deter timely actions to combat climate change, and impede sustainable development. This research paper will scrutinize major Tajikistan laws and policies on environment protections, sustainable development, climate change, and international investment agreements, and will analyze the previous jurisprudence of ISDS tribunals concerning environmental and sustainable development measures of host States. In the end, this research paper will answer to two fundamental questions, first how international investment law and sustainable development principles can be reconciled in Tajikistan, and even in other countries adopting similar climate change and sustainable development policies, in order to minimize a risk of triggering investor-State disputes, and second, how government can direct foreign investments to its economy in order to enhance its sustainable development performance. This research paper relates to the first session of the panel as it focuses on how Tajikistan government’s can perform better towards sustainable development under the international investment law regime.

SOCIAL SECURITY WITHIN NEW RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM IN VIETNAM FROM POLICY SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE

Bui Thi Phuong - phuongbui.sociology@gmail.com - Institution of Sociology, Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics, Viet Nam - Viet Nam

Bui Thi Phuong - phuongbui.sociology@gmail.com - Institution of Sociology, Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics, Viet Nam - Viet Nam

In Vietnam, social security policy forms as a part of public and social policy. From the policy science perspective one can examine a social security policy within the rural construction program as a policy research, making and implementation process in order to make a part to ensure social welfare, protection, sustainable human and social development in rural area, improve physical and material life of rural people (Le Ngoc Hung, 2016). A correct social security policy needs to be concretized into an action program, index, criteria set and implementation instruction in a scientific way to achieve a laid down objective. This point is clarified through the analysis of the actual situation and results and then suggests solutions to improve the effects of social security policy implementation in new rural development program (equivalent to new rural building program, new rural development program in Viet Nam) in the following stage.     

Social security policies can be clarified through the examination of documents of Vietnam’s communist party congresses, resolutions of the Government, decisions of the Prime Minister, circulars and other related legal documents of ministries and organizations.

Assessing the Financial Conditions of Sustainable Development Policies for Forest and Biodiversity Conservation in Brazil

Carlos Eduardo Frickmann Young - young@ie.ufrj.br - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

Biancca Scarpeline de Castro - bianccastro2@gmail.com - Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

The purpose of the present study is to deepen the knowledge about the current state of the mechanisms for financing the Sustainable Development Goal “Life on Earth” (Goal 15), directly related to biodiversity conservation, in the current context of Brazilian public policies. The “Life on Earth” Goal is to sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, and halt biodiversity loss. Therefore, it is related to public policies with the objective of protecting, restoring and promoting the sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, with special focus on biodiversity conservation.

The importance of Goal 15 to Brazil and the rest of planet rely on the huge extension of tropical rainforests and other biodiversity rich biomes, many of them in extremely dangerous situation. Deforestation remains a huge problem: in spite of a considerable reduction in the Brazilian Amazon in the last decade, deforestation has increased in the last few years. Emissions from forest slash-and-burn remain one of the most important sources of greenhouse gases, and other ecosystem services, such as watershed conservation and soil protection, are also endangered by the massive loss of native forests.

The objective of this paper is to discuss how Brazilian governments (Federal and Subnational) are performing in order to achieve the targets established by Goal 15. More specifically, the paper focus on how public administrations are struggling with the difficult financial conditions in order to guarantee (or not) the necessary funding to implement sustainable policies towards native forests and biodiversity conservation.

For this, a bibliographical survey will be carried out, in the national and international literature, on the sources of financing related to forest and biodiversity conservation. This will allow the analysis and systematization of practices in order to establish a benchmark to compare with the current status of financing strategies to protect forests in Brazil. Concrete cases of successful policies will be identified so that they serve as parameters and can point to metrics of effective implementation of Goal 15.

Other specific issues to be focused on the analysis are the evaluation of public budgets devoted to the theme of forest conservation and implementation of alternative strategies of funding, such as economic instruments (“green” taxes and subsidies, cap-and-trade schemes for forest conservation, carbon-related incentives, etc.). This will allow comparing the Brazilian governments performance on these issues with other international experiences. We hope that improving the understanding of the Brazilian situation on the subject will contribute to design more effective and realistic policies towards forest conservation and better social conditions for the people who depend upon it.

Keywords: sustainable development; conservation policies; Brazil

Session 2

Discussants

Parviz Odilov - parvizodilov@gmail.com - Yonsei University - Tajikistan

Carlos Eduardo Frickmann Young - young@ie.ufrj.br - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

SOCIAL SECURITY WITHIN NEW RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM IN VIETNAM FROM POLICY SCIENCE PERSPECTIVE

Le Ngoc Hung - hungxhh@gmail.com - Institute of Sociology, Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics, Viet Nam - Viet Nam

Bui Thi Phuong - phuongbui.sociology@gmail.com - Institution of Sociology, Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics, Viet Nam - Viet Nam

In Vietnam, social security policy forms as a part of public and social policy. From the policy science perspective one can examine a social security policy within the rural construction program as a policy research, making and implementation process in order to make a part to ensure social welfare, protection, sustainable human and social development in rural area, improve physical and material life of rural people (Le Ngoc Hung, 2016). A correct social security policy needs to be concretized into an action program, index, criteria set and implementation instruction in a scientific way to achieve a laid down objective. This point is clarified through the analysis of the actual situation and results and then suggests solutions to improve the effects of social security policy implementation in new rural development program (equivalent to new rural building program, new rural development program in Viet Nam) in the following stage.     

ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL SECURITY POLICIES

Social security policies can be clarified through the examination of documents of Vietnam’s communist party congresses, resolutions of the Government, decisions of the Prime Minister, circulars and other related legal documents of ministries and organizations.

Strengthening skills for a knowledge-intensive economy: The Case of Costa Rica

Suráyabi Ramírez - surayabi.ramirezvaras@ucr.ac.cr - Observatory of Development, University of Costa Rica - Costa Rica

Abarca Alejandro - alejandro.abarca_g@ucr.ac.cr - Observatory of Development, University of Costa Rica - Costa Rica

This paper presents the development policy case of Costa Rica, a small economy with high development indicators, and one of the most politically stable countries in Latin America. Over the last decades, the country has changed its growth strategy from an import substitution model in the sixties and seventies, to an open economy that has made foreign direct investment (FDI) the principal engine of the country’s economic dynamism.



Since 1995, following the arrival of INTEL to the country, the government has shown a great commitment into attracting knowledge-intensive firms that mostly demand high skilled English speaking labor. These labor demands have required improving the education and training of the labor force through different public polices such as fostering the technical formation, opening new engineering careers at public universities and expanding scholarships in science and technology. Furthermore, the government has also created tax free zones and other fiscal incentives in order to keep bringing high value added and technological investments to the country.



However, at the present time, the skilled English-speaking workforce has grown slower than the supply of jobs in the FDI sector, which is a rising mismatch that has to be solved in short and medium term to ensure the sustainability of the Costa Rican growth model. In addition, high unemployment and scant achievements in educational attainment in the past twenty years in spite of ever increasing government spending in education only further jeopardize the sustainability of the adopted developmental strategy adopted by Costa Rica more than twenty years ago. In this paper, we argue that the current developmental strategy of Costa Rica has not provided equal opportunities to all of its population in spite of succeeding in attracting high added value knowledge intensive foreign direct investment.

 

 

Furthermore, we argue that what mostly accounts for this inequality is that a large proportion of the working age population do not speak English. We do this by first analyzing the public policies implemented by Costa Rica to expand the teaching of English in the Costa Rican population from the 1990s to the present. Secondly, through the use of descriptive time series statistics and econometric estimations, we study how earnings, poverty levels and labor rights vary between working people that speak English and those who do not.

 


Thus, this paper contributes to the understanding of how to implement public policies on building new skills and production competences in a globalized context for developing countries new skills and production competences.

INCLUSIVE, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE SOCIAL POLICY: THE VIETNAM CASE STUDY OF EDUCATION AND GROWTH

Bui Thi Phuong - phuongbui.sociology@gmail.com - Institution of Sociology, Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics, Viet Nam - Viet Nam

Bui Thi Phuong - phuongbui.sociology@gmail.com - Institution of Sociology, Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics, Viet Nam - Viet Nam

Vietnam is restructuring from the model of extensive development based on resources to the model of intensive development based on the effectiveness. The modern theory of development and the statistical facts of Vietnam’s net school enrolment and technical qualification level demonstrate that the inclusive, sustainable development strongly requires the new educational mangagement thinking of policy makers and the implementation of the social policy of high education for all people.

Most of Vietnam’s public opinions state that Vietnam is in the condition of ‘redundancy of teachers, shortage of workers’. This means that Vietnam has too many teachers and shortage of workers. This public understanding may lead to decisive policy prioritizing increasing education quality rather than increasing the quantity, rate of education enrolment at the right age from kindergarten to university. Under the pressure of this public social opinion renovation of education has been strongly centered in reforming education, training program contents, textbooks, training materials and examination procedures. A system of (internal) education quality insurance organs, organizations, centers have been set up and are operating in order to improve the quality of primary and lower-secondary education for the majority and post- upper-secondary and tertiary education for the minority of the population.  Rapid assessment of thousands of people of tertiary and post-university education level indicate clearly the above-mentioned opinions of ‘redundancy of teachers, shortage of workers’ stemmed from the lack of the information or knowledge exaggerating the rate of enrolment at the right age of the population of secondary and university age.

Being asked about the rate of university admission of the population of university age in 2009 most of respondents of over university education gave very optimal numbers (40%-80%), 2-4 times higher than the official survey results of net university enrolment rate. There maybe they did not know exact statistics or survey results of kindergarten-university education opportunities, their opinions, comments and evaluation or contribution to education renovation are affected by public social opinions. In fact, Vietnam is in the shortage of high quality teachers as well as of workers with high technical training after their secondary school graduation, especially well-educated university and post-university workers.

At the same time, a socio-economic policy made is that Vietnam needs to transmit from extensive development model basing mainly on low-level, cheap labor and high capital and material input used to intensive one basing on science, technology and invisible capital, social capital and high educated human resources. But, how this transmission to this inclusive, sustainable development model can happen when the public social opinion of ‘redundancy of teachers, shortage of workers’ is prevail among the people, leaders, managers and even scientists and educators. Facing this situation this paper has the task of introducing the approach of inclusive and sustainable development model to emphasize that that kind of development requires to start from the people, for the development of the people through social policy opening more education opportunities from kindergarten to university for all people.   

Key words: Model of development, extensive development, intensive development; inclusive, effectiveness, creativity; inclusive, sustainable development; net school enrolment, technical qualification, high education, policy.

Veto Players, Party Tenure and its Influences for Ecnomic Growth

JOSE FERREIRA FILHO - josealexand@uol.com.br - CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY OF PERNAMBUCO - Brazil

This paper investigates how the veto players - agents with power veto - and the party tenure can influence the economic growth process in East Asian and Latin American countries. After consider theoretical aspects it is analyzed the empirical issued using econometric methods for the period 1996 - 2014. It is found a negative contribution of the veto players and a positive contribution of the party tenure to economic growth.

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