T16P17 - Sustainable Development and Policy Intervention in Asia

Topic : Sustainable Development and Policy

Panel Chair : Renu Kapila - rennuganesh@gmail.com

Panel Second Chair : Arunoday Bajpai - arunodaybajpai@gmail.com

Panel Third Chair : Giancarlo Vecchi - giancarlo.vecchi@polimi.it

Objectives and Scientific Relevance of the panel

Call for papers

Session 1 Sustainable Development and Policy Intervention in Asia - I


Giancarlo Vecchi - giancarlo.vecchi@polimi.it - Politecnico di Milano - Italy

Unsustainable Policies for Sustainable Development: A Case of Food Security in South Asia

Arunoday Bajpai - arunodaybajpai@gmail.com - Agra College Agra, Dr BRA University, Agra (India) - India

Food security happens to be an important dimension of sustainable development in South Asia in view of its burgeoning population, persisting poverty level and new threats of climate change natural disasters. South Asia consisting of eight countries- India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives sustains 24 percent of global population on a 3.4 percent of global surface area. It is not only the least integrated region of the world, its three countries- Bangladesh, Nepal and Afghanistan- fall in the category of the Least Developed countries. According to the Fact Book of the CIA (2016), the percentage of people living below the poverty line in South Asia is: Bangladesh-31.8 (2011); Bhutan- 12 (2012); India-29.8 (2010); Maldives-16 (2008) Pakistan-22.3(2005); Nepal-25.2(2011); and Sri Lanka-8.9 (2010) Its major development challenges are: providing gainful employment to over 12 million people that enter the labor force each year; and addressing the growing risks from natural disasters and climate change, poor health and nutrition, growing inequality among different social groups and regions, corruption, and poor infrastructure..

The growing challenges of food security have assumed severe proportion amidst above development challenges. Whatever, may be the level of economic development, the status of food security is critically dependent on the policies of sustainable agriculture followed by each country of the region. In place of policies that sustain agriculture growth, the reverse is taking place in South Asia- dwindling investment in agriculture, neglect of research and development, lack of necessary infrastructure, market and financial support- so much so that agriculture has become an unsustainable means of livelihood for rural populace. The globalization has further added to the woes of middle, marginal and poor farmers, who are compelled to swell the rank of slum dwellers in urban centers. Without weak adaptive mechanism, the looming threat of climate change has increased the vulnerability of South Asia to food security.

In the above background, this paper seeks to analyze the viability of public policies in South Asia with respect to food security and sustainable agriculture, which are crucial for the success of sustainable development strategies in the region. It is based on the assumption that south Asian countries have failed to accord priority to sustainable development and food security, viz-a viz other sectors of economy in last two decades.

Why do sustainable development policies fail? Evidence from energy efficiency policies in Iran

Ali Maleki - a.maleki@sharif.edu - The Research Institute for Science, Technology and Industry Policy (RISTIP) - Iran, Islamic Republic of

Erfan Mosleh - Erfan.mosleh@gmail.com - Iran, Islamic Republic of

This paper aims to explore the important factors explaining failure of energy efficiency polices in Iran. Nowadays, achieving higher levels of energy efficiency is considered as an undeniable strategic, economic and environmental objective of many countries. Improving energy efficiency leads to energy safety, healthy environment and economic growth. In Islamic Republic of Iran, like many other countries, the concept of energy efficiency has attracted the attention of policy makers over the last several years, though it has experienced several ups and downs. The final serious endeavors accomplished in 2010 and 2011 when a new set of energy efficiency policies were developed and new regulations were put forward and imparted for implementation. However, unfortunately this policies were not successful in practice. The trend and levels of multiple indicators such as “energy consumption per capita”,” energy intensity”, “energy factor” consistently illustrate the failure of these policies according to the planned objectives. The purpose of this paper is to identify, define and prioritize the factors contributed this policy failure, according to the analytical framework recommended by McConnell. Politics, plan and process are recognized as the three main categories of the failure factors. To this aim, the case study methodology is used focusing on two particular policies: “consumption pattern reform policies” and “consumption pattern reform Act” as two most important energy efficiency policies in last 20 years. After documentary desk research, 5 interviews and a focus group with 12 members were carried out. Employing thematic analysis as our data analysis method, the nine most important underlying causes of failures of energy efficiency policies were identified. In order to understand the relative importance of these different factors, we relied on a questionnaire to collect the data from 20 experts and practitioners involved in the policy process. The Topsis analysis method illustrated four main factors namely: “low energy prices”, “lack of responsiveness in authorities”, “inappropriate methods to adjust energy prices” and “shortsighted political structures “which have played the most importance role in the failure of energy efficiencies among other factors. We also found that McConnell framework has a limited capacity to analyze the institutional aspect of policy failures.

Towards Improved Public Distribution System for Sustainable Livelihood of Poor people in India through Direct Benefit Transfer Scheme: An Empirical study of Chandigarh

NEMI CHAND GOLIAYA - dr.nemichand@gmail.com - Post Graduate Government College for Girls Sector-42 Chandigarh,Panjab University Chandigarh,India - India

First three sustainable development goals strive for achieving sustainable livelihood. Poverty’s manifestations include hunger and malnutrition, limited access to education and other basic services, social discrimination and exclusion as well as the lack of participation in decision-making. Economic growth must be inclusive to provide sustainable jobs and promote equality. Chronic poverty involves people, households and social groups who are poor for sustained and significant or extended period of their lives and whose families may inherit persistent condition. To meet the socio-development objectives of poverty elimination and inclusive growth a number of government sponsored programs and schemes has been introduced in India. However efficiency and effectiveness has not been achieved by any of the programme and schemes optimally. There is a rampant leakages and corruption have made schemes distorted and dysfunctional. Benefit of these programs not percolated properly in time and with quality delivery at the bottom. Public Distribution System (PDS), a massive programme, often said to be the largest of its kind in the world in terms of coverage, presently experienced in use to exclude non-poor consumers, a relatively small segment of the consumer base, from access to subsidized food grains, kerosene, sugar, etc. It has been argued, for instance, that the cost of maintaining this elaborate PDS bureaucracy is much higher than the amount of subsidy it is supposed to save by enforcing, unsuccessfully, the exclusion of this small group of non-poor consumers from access to subsidized commodities. Government of India Switch over to the technology enabled innovative initiative to implement Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) scheme for Public distribution system under National Food Security Act (NFSA). DBT system would cleanly cut away from all these problems. In time, it could enable dismantling of the elaborate PDS, with consequent saving of huge costs. Aadhaar number (Unique Identification Number) linked Direct Cash Transfer Scheme has been aimed to mitigate these malaises. Direct Cash Transfer Scheme aim to reduce leakages, cut down corruption, eliminate middlemen, target beneficiaries better and speed up transfer of benefits to eligible individuals and households. Research question of the study Can the DBT mode of PDS is mile stone in eradicating poverty and ensures proper distribution of food subsidies? Is Cost cutting ensuring more financial resources mobilization for distribution? This empirical study is from the universe of 60,000 households under PDS in Chandigarh on the bases of random sampling of 600 households. This paper is designed to be more accessible, more policy oriented, and focused squarely on the issue of evaluation of direct cash transfer operational model to achieve sustainable development goals. The analytical findings will also be connected to real world policy narratives in developing countries, to provide texture to the results and enhance policy relevance and which will ensures sustainable livelihood through technologies based governance


Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals, sustainable livelihood, poverty, Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT), public distribution system (PDS), beneficiaries

Facilitating Sustainable Development of Rural Women through Financial Inclusion with special reference to National Rural Livelihood Mission in State of Haryana(India):An Assessment

NAVREET KAUR - navreet9@gmail.com - Panjab University Chandigarh - India

MANJU DALAL - manjudalal.manju@gmail.com - Panjab University Chandigarh - India

Title: Facilitating Sustainable Development of Rural Women through Financial  Inclusion with special reference to National Rural Livelihood Mission in State of Haryana(India):An Assessment

Equality between men and women is more than a matter of social justice. It is fundamental human right(UNPD).As per UN Report; Women earn ten percent of the world’s income and own less than one percent of the world resources although women account for more than fifty percent of the world’s population, execute sixty seven percent of the world’s working hours and constitute sixty percent of the world’s labor force(UNDP ). In the Inequality Adjusted Human Development Index, the average loss due to inequality is 32 percent at the All-India level. These statistical figures regarding the state of women compel policy makers to rethink about development strategies for the empowerment of women.

 Government of India had taken many initiatives to create opportunities through financial inclusion, capacity building and build a foundation for sustainable development. NRLM is a holistic programme and its main tenets are Key activities, cluster approach and group method.  The basic objective of NRLM is to bring the assisted poor families above poverty line by providing them income-generating assets through bank credits and government subsidy and to inter organize the rural poor into Self Help Groups. The main key features are -(a)Universal social mobilization ;(b)Promotion of Institutions of the poor; (c)Training,capacity building and skill building;(d)Revolving fund and Capital subsidy;(e)Universal Financial Inclusion;(f)Provision of Interest subsidy;(g)sustainable livelihood .(GoI)

 An attempt has been made in this paper to assess the implementation of NRLM in state of Haryana.An attempt has been made to analyze the role of NRLM as Facilitator for financial inclusion of rural poor women for microenterprise development and to study the accessibility of credit to rural women for sustainable development. Hypothesis of the study; There is lack of awareness among the beneficiaries regarding the various components of National Rural Livelihood Mission; Financial Inclusion has increased the self employment opportunities for rural women; Participation in self help group’s activities has increased participation in community organizations and also in Panchayati Raj Institutions; Credit accessibility to rural poor women has led to micro enterprise development activities.

In proposed research paper both primary as well as secondary data has been used. The data was collected from the state of Haryana. The Primary data has been collected from two districts namely Jind and Rohtak .These districts represent high and medium number of Women Self Help Groups (WSHG’s). The total sample size of the study was 120 (100 beneficiaries+20 officials). Out of 120, (50 beneficiaries from each district  and 20 DRDA officials were taken as sample to assess the implementation of the scheme in Haryana.

In addition to primary data secondary data has been  used to support the study.            It has been found that financial inclusion helped in economic empowerment of rural women and participation in SHGs activities increased micro entrepreneurship opportunities   for women.

*   Dr Navreet,Assistant Professor, Department of Public Administration, Panjab University Chandigarh,                                 

Ms Manju Dalal, Research Scholar,Department of Public Administration,Panjab University Chandigarh,India

Session 2 Sustainable Development and Policy Intervention in Asia - II


Arunoday Bajpai - arunodaybajpai@gmail.com - Agra College Agra, Dr BRA University, Agra (India) - India

What makes a government spend more on the environment? The case of Hong Kong

JINGYUAN XU - jingyxu3-c@my.cityu.edu.hk - City University of Hong Kong - Hong Kong, (China)

Under-spending on environmental governance has long been a universal challenge in sustainable development, with U.S. federal government spends no more than 3 percent of its total budget on conservation, EU countries less than 2 percent in average, China’s central government about 2 percent, and Hong Kong, less than 5 percent. The literature on environmental funding mostly adopts the framework of pressure-state-response (PSR), which indicates environmental spending is the result of the ecological pressures and societal demands. What unexplored are the factors within the governing systems that take budgetary outcome as the result of a dynamic political process that involves stakeholder competing interests and how these interests evolve in a forever changing institutional setting.


Hong Kong, with its dynamic and evolving democratic institutional development and stakeholder interactions in the development, provides an excellent case to observe how political forces in the governing process influence environmental spending. The past decades have witnessed the dramatic political and economic change of Hong Kong in the aspects of a more independent legislature, a more powerful Chief Executive and more active pressure groups. All of theses have led the transformation of Hong Kong’s budgetary system from a closed-door, tightly-controlled, and bureaucrat-dominated model in to a more open and inclusive, but also more confrontational model of decision making.


Closely related to sustainable development of this city, environmental protection has achieved great concerns from Hong Kong government these years, accompanying with its increasing financial investment and development on environmental policy. This study examines how environmental initiatives and spending have been influenced by the dynamic democratic institutional development in Hong Kong in the past 30 years. The longitudinal data provide a unique view into environmental spending patterns and how they were established to reflect stakeholder interactions, competition and compromises. The results of the study add our understanding about political process of environmental policy and suggest ways to improve the process.

A review of water pollution abatement strategies in India: The case of Gujarat

Sanchita Talukdar - sanchitatalukdar@gmail.com - The Institute of Water Policy - Singapore

Cecilia Tortajada - cecilia.tortajada@nus.edu.sg - Institute of Water Policy, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore - Singapore


Industrialization is central to generating job opportunities, reducing regional income disparities and enabling poverty eradication in developing countries like India. Goal-9 of the Sustainable Development Goals resonates to this end by stressing on the achievement of inclusive and sustainable industrialization, promoting innovation and resilient infrastructure. This has far reaching implications in terms of achieving water security for the highly industrially developed, but naturally water scarce and drought prone state of Gujarat, located in the western part of India.


 The objective of this paper is to review water pollution abatement strategies undertaken through various policies in the Gujarat state. This has been attempted within the background of federal water legislations/laws to protect water resources .The issue of irreversibility in the quality of surface and ground water resource of the state, already degraded by water pollution has been addressed.


 During the last decade the state has made commendable progress in augmenting water supplies by investing in a comprehensive schema of water works - the Narmada canal network under the Sardar Sarovar Dam, creation of water harvesting structures, construction of check dams with people’s participation etc.  Water resource managers of the state however point that the next important challenge for the state is to manage its deteriorating water quality. In 2015, the Central Pollution Board (CPCB) of India reported that out of the 275 critically polluted rivers, 20 flow in Gujarat.


 An estimated 800 large scale and 453,339 micro, small and medium industries dot Gujarat’s industrial landscape. A majority of these industries manufacturing chemicals, bulk drugs and pharmaceuticals, dye and dye intermediates, textiles are immensely water polluting. Lack of stringent regulatory environment, poor effluent treatment infrastructure and insufficient financial incentives to adopt water saving technologies for industries has contributed to water pollution in the state.


In 2010, the then Ministry of Environment and Forests of the Government of India  issued a moratorium on six of the critically polluted industrial clusters of the state. The State Pollution Control Board  in Gujarat incurred heavy costs for the “clean up” in the form of investments in pollution control technology and updating of monitoring mechanisms in the state. For industries, it led to rising costs leading to greater “regulatory risks” due to water regulation reducing the attractiveness and eventually competitiveness of business. As pollution load from effluent treatment plants fell, the ban on the industrial clusters were lifted eventually. The comprehensive appraisal of the industrial clusters for water pollution, however did not include any concerted “clean up” of the already degraded water bodies.


Sustainable industrialization has a critical role to play in water conservation. The Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change 2014 highlights how industrial symbiosis within SEZ and clusters could be an effective breeding ground of innovative and effective pollution mitigation strategies. To this end, new alternatives using economic instruments such as effluents trading to combat water pollution from industries in India in general and Gujarat in particular has been explored.



The cultural and material dimensions of waste practices of the emerging middle classes in Bangalore

Sunayana Ganguly - sunayana.ganguly@apu.edu.in - Azim Premji University, India - India

The incorporation of waste disposal policies and strategies are essential to the trajectory of sustainable development. The study of household practices and patterns of everyday disposal of waste allows us an inside look on cultural and social transformations and how it interacts with policy intervention at the level of society. This paper emphasises that there are certain cultural nuances to what is considered waste and this plays an important role in discussing value – both economic and social – to waste. In conjunction to that, the infrastructure – both policy and material play a big role in changing perceptions about waste and assigning value to items that would otherwise be discarded. This change has been driven by both policy changes at a state level that has brought about greater awareness as well as pressure from informal peer groups and civil society. This paper will explore the role that policy, culture, social and material factors have on waste practices of households.


A practice approach investigates consumption in the context of situated everyday practices in developing societies that have undergone massive changes at the economic and policy macro-level that have had a definite impact on the structures and practices of individuals and households.  Practices can be seen as being made up of elements such as norms and values, as well as a material dimension, such as infrastructure. Results are based 127 qualitative interviews, gathered during a two-year research project focused on the changing food consumption and waste practices, patterns and policies related to the emerging middle classes in the IT sector in Bangalore.


Using the analytical lens of social practice theory, results are structured on three different levels with the household at its center. First, the Hindu cultural worldview and its nuanced lexicon associated with leftovers or waste food are deconstructed. Secondly consumers’ attitudes are analyses with regard to recycling paper and appliances at the household level. Thirdly, the role of peer and policy pressure in segregation and disposal at the level of a neighborhoods or gated community are reviewed. This paper contends that a cultural reading of waste is an important, and neglected, facet of understanding both individual and collective practices. These practices are not isolated individual acts, but are embedded in a social and structural framework of relationships. The household as its center becomes a point of intersection for religious, material, social and aspirational aspects.


This paper briefly describes the thesis of the throwaway society and the practices theory questioning the assertion that the new middle class in inherently wasteful and less civic minded. Three logics of waste disposal are identified; linking the cultural, social and material dimension within which practices are embedded. Through this typology, it is revealed that practices are influenced by several factors, both historical in terms of culture, ecological because of a new green consciousness and material in the sense of broader policy macro-material dimension that interacts with and influences individuals and households.

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