T09P07 - Global Development Agendas as a Challenge for Policy Coordination in Multi-Level Governance Systems

Topic : Governance, Policy networks and Multi-level Governance

Panel Chair : Smoke Paul - paul.smoke@nyu.edu

Panel Second Chair : Gambhir Bhatta - gbhatta@adb.org

Objectives and Scientific Relevance of the panel

Call for papers

Session 1 Global Development Agendas as a Challenge for Policy Coordination in Multi-Level Governance Systems

Friday, June 30th 08:15 to 10:15 (Li Ka Shing LKS 1 - 1 (34))

Discussants

Claudia Buentjen - cbuentjen@adb.org - Asian Development Bank - Philippines

Rainer Rohdewohld - rohdewohld@ciptanet.de - Ciptanet International (Deutschland) - Germany

Fragility, decentralization and multilevel governance

Hamish Nixon - h.nixon@odi.org.uk - Overseas Development Institute - United Kingdom

Fragility –understood as institutional weakness and thus poor resilience in the face of risks – and the development challenges confronted by the post-2015 development agenda are closely interlinked. It is well recognized that extreme poverty is increasingly concentrated in fragile contexts, and Sustainable Development Goal 16 is an acknowledgement that weak institutions present key barriers to development progress. Fragility is increasingly seen as having multiple dimensions, and being present in varying degrees across subnational contexts and particularly urban environments. However, there is little discussion of the spatial and intergovernmental dimensions of institutional weakness that underlie much of this fragility in contexts around the world, and in South East Asia in particular. Supporting the ‘effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels’ called for in SDG 16 requires clearer frameworks for understanding institutional weaknesses across territories and among levels of government. Drawing on theoretical and empirical literature on fragility, subnational conflict, and decentralization, this paper presents potential approaches to understanding the sources of some fragility in terms of weak multilevel governance. This approach goes beyond acknowledging the role of local and subnational government capacity in the post-2015 agenda, to emphasize the needs and potential, of multilevel systems in delivering the coordination and capability to bring the post-2015 agenda to life in fragile contexts.

Network Effects of Rural Development Interventions: Case Studies in Afghanistan and Pakistan

Khwaja Elsa - ekhwaja@gmu.edu - George Mason University Schar School of Policy and Government - United States

The year 2016 was a critical year of reflection for the international development community. With over ten years since the OECD Paris Declaration of Aid-Effectiveness, a reconceptualization of the established core principles, such as “ownership” and “mutual accountability,” is warranted. Similarly, with the newly derived Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the current 2030 development planning and implementation presents a crucial time to reevaluate these policies and frameworks through innovative approaches. Arguably, the SDGs offer a new framework for measuring development progress towards more attainable objectives, emphasizing social inclusion, environmental sustainability, and economic development (Sachs, 2015). Though great strides have been achieved, the debate continues on the relevance of the SDGs and overall effectiveness of external development assistance programs in various local contexts.

 

This study aims to contribute to the “social inclusion” factor of the SDG framework, and the relationships among key players in aid policy networks as significant indicators of aid-impact. Assessing how influence and power are embedded within development structures can provide crucial insights about their outcomes. Greater social complexity is evident in fragile and conflict-affected regions like Afghanistan and Pakistan. Establishing development programs based on their unique provincial socio-cultural contexts and collective involvement of local partners has been a challenging venture.

 

Applying an integrated conceptual framework of social capital and social network analysis (SNA), this paper illustrates the inter-organizational relationships of two prominent rural development interventions: The Afghanistan National Solidarity Program and Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) Rural Livelihoods and Community Infrastructure Program. Both programs aim to build social capital among the communities, allowing for alternative evaluation methods, unique to this objective. This exploratory analysis examines the whole-network organizational structures of these programs and how these structures challenge the underlying objectives of Community Driven Development (CDD) initiatives, which aim to create sustainable solutions through community managed processes.

 

SNA reveals the organizational whole network metrics of power, influence, dependency and social cohesion. The resulting visualizations depict core-peripheral social structures, hierarchical clustering, alongside measures of high centralization and low cohesion. This supports conclusions from the aid-effectiveness literature implying that the inherent organizational social structure may inhibit local actors from acquiring the necessary influence and power for sustainable, locally-owned processes and outcomes. The study examines critical issues surrounding sustainability, and the significance of inclusive and participatory development initiatives, emphasizing the need to re-conceptualize the relational orientation of aid-policy interventions.

 

Analyzing the non-linear, interdependent nature of exchanges among heterogeneous actors allows for a distinct approach to impact evaluations throughout the duration of programs and upon closeout, an emerging approach and paradigm shift from traditional development studies. As both programs aim to improve social inclusion and “localization” processes, this analysis will add value to the ‘lessons-learned’ in the evaluations, potentially translatable to similar local contexts. Examining the structural properties of development assistance will enable improvement of intervening structures to best meet the needs of beneficiaries, for enhancing local empowerment and social capital, central to the democratic state-building agenda in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Post-Suharto Indonesia Metropolitan Governance Policy: Alternative Solution for Advancing Global Agendas

Ida Widianingsih - ida.widianingsih@unpad.ac.id - Universitas Padjadjaran - Indonesia

Binahayati Rusyidi - binahayati@unpad.ac.id - Universitas Padjadjaran - Indonesia

kodrat wibowo - kodrat_w@hotmail.com - Faculty of Economics and Business - Indonesia

Emi Patmisari - emiskp@yahoo.com - West Java Government - Indonesia

Global development agendas highlight the importance of addressing the urbanization trend and its implication.  This paper discusses how the  Post-Suharto Indonesia local government responding the issues by using the case of West Java provincial government efforts to respond the fast growing development in the region  due to urbanization  and industrialization processes. Within the last three decades the proportion of West Java province population changed significantly, Central Statistical Bureau of Indonesia recorded that in  1980,  30% of West Java Province  population lived in urban areas and it was  dramatically increased to 66.5 % in 2015.    The changing landscape of population in the region brought both positive and negative impacts, including growing economy, expanding   city center, increasing number of the poor, widening development gap among regions,  food, water and energy security issues, etc. In order to reduce the negative impacts of the development processes, the West Java government introduced Provincial Regulation No. 12/2014 on Management of Metropolitan Region and Development Center in West Java Province. The regulation  aims to achieve a more sustainable  and equitable economic  development in the whole region to achieve social welfare of the people. Strategically, the regulation introduces three Metropolitan areas in  West Java Province that consist of  Bodebekkarpur, Bandung Raya and Cirebon Raya Metropolitan regions.  Each region was developed based on special characteristics including geographical position, economic potentials, social, cultural and political aspects.  The establishment of three metropolitan regions demanding multi-actor collaboration and coordination among sectors and across government levels. Research found that despite successful and positive efforts of local government in utilizing integrated  development approach, the case of West Java Metropolitan governance policy also showed some potential challenges.

Enhancing Governance of Social Health Insurance Systems in the Philippines and Viet Nam: Lessons Learnt and Implications for Policy and Institutional Reforms

Joel Mangahas - jmangahas@adb.org - Asian Development Bank - Philippines

Susann Dr Roth - sroth@adb.org - Asian Development Bank - Philippines

Kirthi Ramesh - kramesh@adb.org - Asian Development Bank - Philippines

Vu Nu Anh - nuanh.vu@gmail.com - Health Insurance Department, Ministry of Health of Viet Nam - Viet Nam

Governments worldwide have committed to global development agendas such as achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to improve health outcomes and promote well-being for all. Progress towards better access to and quality of basic health services of countries across the globe has been uneven – underscoring the importance of effective policy coordination and operating mechanisms at multi-level governance systems. Middle-income countries like the Philippines and Viet Nam are strengthening their social health insurance (SHI) systems as a key strategy to achieve UHC and SDG 3. Insofar as SHI in both countries has helped bring better health outcomes, challenges persist wherein governance plays a critical role and tends to be overlooked. From a governance perspective, it is therefore important to understand the factors that affect the SHI performance.

 

In view of the foregoing, the study will discuss and analyze social health insurance systems in the Philippines and Viet Nam within the context of governance principles and international best practice. More specifically, the paper will:

 

  1. Describe and compare the SHI systems in both countries, focusing on key institutions at national and sub-national levels involved in policymaking, regulation, financing, and management;
  2. Identify gains, lessons learnt, and key challenges in policy framework, institutional design and organizational processes; and
  3. Recommend strategic actions to strengthen the governance of SHI systems in both countries.

 

The study methodology will be informed by the (i) institutional and organizational assessment of the World Health Organization; (ii) dimensions of good governance for mandatory health insurance of the World Bank; and (ii) literature on effective policy coordination.  It will examine the existing policies and institutional arrangements as well as review reports and studies on governance of health insurance systems in both countries. These will be complemented by interviews with key policymakers and other stakeholder groups. The study will also use the authors’ professional experiences from working in the health sector and governance theme. The study will add to the literature on SHI policy and governance reforms for achieving UHC and SDG 3, which will be of interest to academicians, researchers, and practitioners.    

Carbon Governance Arrangements and the Nation-State: The Reconfiguration of Public Authority in Developing Countries

Harald Fuhr - hfuhr@uni-potsdam.de - University of Potsdam - Germany

Numerous scholars have recently observed a relocation of authority in different domains of global policy-making. This development is particularly prevalent in the field of global climate politics. Due to the regulatory gap in this policy area, various new governance arrangements have emerged that operate at different political levels to cope with the issue of climate change. However, despite several descriptions and mapping exercises, we have little systematic knowledge about their workings within national jurisdictions, let alone their impact on political-administrative systems in developing countries. Therefore, this article seeks to open the black box of the nation-state and explores how two different types of governance arrangements, Transnational City Networks (TCNs) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) generate changes in the distribution of public authority in nation-states and their administrations. Building upon the conceptual assumptions that the former is likely to lead to more decentralized and the latter to more centralized policy-making, we provide insights from case studies on Brazil, India, Indonesia, and South Africa. While we find little indications that TCNs influence the way climate policies are carried out, the case studies suggest that REDD+ has strengthened competencies in the central government, without recentralizing the whole forestry sector.

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