T09P12 - Challenges for Multilevel Governance: Civil Society and Institutional Conditions for Effective Inclusion in Latin America and Europe

Topic : Governance, Policy networks and Multi-level Governance

Panel Chair : Adela Romero-Tarín - adela.romero@ua.es

Objectives and Scientific Relevance of the panel

Call for papers

Session 1

Discussants

Antonio Alejo Jaime - alejoaj@gmail.com - FLACSO Spain - Spain

Rogério Luiz Nery da Silva - dr.rogerionery@gmail.com - UNOESC - University of West at Santa Catarina - Brazil

NGOs Diplomacies: An approach to rethink global politics The case of Mexico

Antonio Alejo Jaime - alejoaj@gmail.com - FLACSO Spain - Spain

This paper reflect on alternative approaches to re-think global social movements facing global politics (McGrew, 2014). My point of departure is the relevance for understanding how global politics (local-global interactions) has to understand the transformations of diplomacy in a globalized world beyond traditional diplomacy understanding frames. The main objective of this contribution is to offer one way to identify and analyze the transnational practices of NGOs within global studies with an interdisciplinary approach between sociology of collective action and diplomatic studies.

 

Three questions orient this paper:

 

Why is relevant to re-think the diplomacy beyond Sate-centric perspectives?

What concepts are useful to identify and explain NGOs key transnational practices framed by contemporary global politics?

What analytical approach on sociology of collective action could be developed and deepened to characterize NGO Diplomacies?

 

Based on this questions, I present an analytical strategy framework that contributes to identify and analyse NGOs practices as part of the social appropriation of contemporary diplomacy. The integral analytical framework offered here aims to systematically analyse NGOs practices (narratives and activities) as NGOs Diplomacies considering three dimensions: 1. Multiscale Governance Framework Perspective; 2. Global Awareness on Agendas and 3. Transnational Repertoire for Political Influence. Methodologically, this analytical framework looks to identify socio-political global phenomena beyond methodological nationalism but without ignoring that sociologically, and historically, XXI Century`s global politics emerged from state-nation´s understandings. Empirically, I use the case of Mexico to observe how NGOs are facing the implementation of SDG 2030 Agenda.

Measures of participation: the existence and the activity levels of rights councils as determinants of municipal policies for disabled persons in Brazil

Andrei Suárez Dillon Soares - andreisds@hotmail.com - Brazilian Government - Brazil

Juliana De Castro Galvao - julianadecastrogalvao@gmail.com - Universidade de Brasilia - Brazil

 

A landmark in its democratization process, Brazil´s promulgation of a rights-centered Constitution in 1988 led to a proliferation of local and federal participative institutions, ending a 20th Century in which the Brazilian State was relatively impermeable to public engagement. Unlike its predecessors, the new Constitution includes in its present form twelve explicit provisions for participative practices, understood as deliberative mechanisms that incorporate citizens and civil organizations into the process of governmental decision-making. As has been amply discussed, this groundwork led to a proliferation of public policy councils among Brazil´s 5.570 municipalities.

Are transversal public policy councils effective in promoting the rights of vulnerable groups at a local level? Applying techniques of regression analysis, the paper seeks to breach the matter by investigating the relation between Councils for the Rights of Disabled Persons and a pool of municipal policies for this social segment. Results suggest that the constitution of these councils and their levels of activity are significant predictive variables for the existence of public policies promoting the rights of disabled people at a local level.

The paper begins with a brief review of the available bibliography on participatory institutions, a review focused on the as of yet incipient debate regarding their effectiveness as instruments for policy design and governance.

Using data from the 2014 Survey of Basic Municipal Information (Munic), an annual census of local government realized by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, the paper then presents a Municipal Index of Programs and Policies for People with Disabilities. A synthetic indicator, this index condenses ten variables as a proxy for the commitment of local governments to promoting the rights of this social segment.

Using linear regression techniques, the paper than measures the coefficients of determination of various explanatory independent variables upon the index´s measured variance. These include geographic region (fundamental given Brazil´s regional inequalities), per capita income, average age, schooling levels and disabled population – besides information regarding the existence and the level of activity of Municipal Councils for the Rights of Disabled Persons.

Among other results, the paper includes findings suggesting that the existence of specific policies for people with disabilities is correlated with statistical significance to the existence of these councils – but, surprisingly, not to the actual proportion of this segment in municipal populations. In other words, mechanisms of citizen participation and participatory governance appear to be a key factor for the effectiveness of inclusive policies for this social segment.

Participatory budgeting and social inclusion in modern Brazil

Elena Blinova - caudex@yandex.ru - St Petersburg State University - Russia (Russian Federation)

Modern world is changing very quickly and the states should adjust their politics appropriately to survive. D. North (North, 1999) discussed the factor of non-ergodic processes in the social environment. To cope with the challenges of changing environment, the state should demonstrate the dynamism, openness, responsiveness, ability to innovate. There is high demand for innovative institutional ideas, because, according to D. North, "no one knows the right way to survive" (North, 2010). In this connection, the state is now seeking to reach not only the “stateness”, that is to provide internal and external security and legitimacy, but also aimed at improving the governance and competitiveness. Despite serious resource base, in Brazil there are many complicated social problems - inequality of the black population, marginalized population of favelas, aggravating drug trafficking and crime, etc. To solve these problems the Brazilian Workers Party has taken the path of innovation not only in technology, but also in the social sphere (wide social programs, e-government and participatory budgeting). At present participatory budgeting is more effective way for direct inclusion of citizens in the institutions of governance based on participation in Brazil than political parties or representative bodies. Participatory budgeting (PB) serves as a means of improvement of common social welfare. The cycle of participatory budgeting lasts during one year and the citizens decide through public meetings and negotiations how to spend money on new projects in urban infrastructure, such as hospitals, schools, street paving. Participatory budgeting combines two models of democracy - direct democracy at the level of regional assemblies and representative democracy at the level of Delegates and Council of Participatory Budgeting. The purpose of PB is to spend the limited resources for the most deprived areas and the most vulnerable citizens. In our research we study the experience of the PB in Brazil in terms of several parameters: (1) the degree of democratic process, that is, the extent to which people, (not government) control the process; (2) the proportion of public funds invested in the process; (3) the legal status of the process; (4) social justice of distribution of results. The methodology of our research is based on 2 concepts – “governance” and “dynamic state capacities”. According to the concept of “governance” the cooperation between state and civil society is based on horizontal network interaction between CSO where the state is acting as arbiter monitoring compliance with the rules. The “dynamic state capacities” concept emphasizes such characteristics of the state as dynamism, openness, responsiveness, ability to innovate. That is, the state should ensure the inclusiveness of the political and economic institutions, to build human capital, to support the broad inclusion of civil society in political decision-making on the basis of trust and transparency.

School Selection as a Legitimated Mechanism for Socio-Urban Exclusion in Santiago de Chile

Fernando Campos Medina - fcamposmedina@gmail.com - Núcleo Científico Tecnológico en Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades - Chile

Maria Skivko - maria.skivko@gmail.com - Bauhaus-University Weimar (Germany) - Germany

Pamela Ugalde - pugalde@puc.cl - Universidad Central de Chile - Chile

ROMINA ALVAREZ BOVE - ralvarez@uchilefau.cl - Universidad de Chile - Chile

Researchers in education highlight the increasing level of school segregation in the Chile. Observing the high levels of segregation, public policy analysis has become focused on the structural conditions of the Chilean educational system as the major cause of social exclusion. “Poor people study with poor people while wealthy people study with wealthy people”, resound as recurrent phrase inside public opinion. Nonetheless, this problem, until now, has never been systematically addressed as the active consequences of people`s decisions. This paper analyzes school selection in Santiago de Chile as an active practice deployed by parents for their children. Through a qualitative approach, We seek to reconstruct i) the school experience, ii) the working trajectory, and iii) the past and present social conditions of parents.

The results show that school selection is not merely a way to choose schools for children but a mechanism of social delimitation and an active way to reinforce socio-urban exclusion. The high levels of social exclusion experienced in the city of Santiago de Chile is not understandable only by accounting for the spatial-mismatch between different social groups. Social exclusion is based on practices and discourses of people and families along time –decades-, and not only a result of structural determination. In other words, it is the agency capability of individuals the main responsible for the missing capacity for integration shown by the traditional socio-urban institutions (i.e. schools) in Chile during the last 40 years.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELITES AND CIVIL SOCIETY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE NEW GOVERNANCE

Adela Romero-Tarín - adela.romero@ua.es - University of Alicante (Spain) - Spain

Jose manuel canales aliende - jm.canales@ua.es - universidad de alicante - Spain

This paper analyzes from an essential perspective the role of the elites in the present society as a consequence of the globalization and therefore of the governance. Therefore, this paper questions the role of these in the new global context and how they will develop in the present and future relations between elites and civil society. In addition, it will describe the role that civil society in these new times must make so that governance ceases to be theoretical and can take shape, despite legal uncontrol. Political and of the exerted pressure of the elites to the traditional political powers. This fact rethinks a new context, with different problems and characteristics in the face of the old dilemma of the antinomy between technocracy and democracy.

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