T09P06 - Institutional Collective Action Mechanism in Asia: Collective Problem Solving Mechanism in Multi-level Governance

Topic : Governance, Policy networks and Multi-level Governance

Panel Chair : Hyung Jun Park - hjpark72@skku.edu

Panel Second Chair : Richard Feiock - rfeiock@fsu.edu

Objectives and Scientific Relevance of the panel

Call for papers

Session 1

Discussants

Kyujin Jung - kjung1@korea.ac.kr - Korea University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Minsun Song - ms11an@my.fsu.edu - Florida State University - United States

Institutional Collective Action and Interlocal Collaborative Network in Urban Agglomeration of China

Liming Suo - dinastysuo@126.com - China

The urban agglomeration is a kind of cooperation body in a certain area, which is closely related to the spatial, economic, administrative and social factors. The cooperation consciousness and cooperation action of urban local governments are important institutional supports of Urban Agglomeration. In accordance with the framework of institutional collective action, the cooperation action of local government presents the diversity of choice in mechanism. The choice of these mechanisms is affected by transaction cost and cooperation risk, including the cooperation mechanism under the motivation of complementarity, the coordination mechanism under the motivation of risk, and the organization mechanism under the motivation of execution, and it forms bilateral relations, multilateral relations and whole relations on the structure of collaborative governance. We put forward the hypothesis of the trend of inter governmental cooperation network, and construct the relationship between institutional arrangements and the trend of bilateral and multilateral networks. When addressing either inter-jurisdictional or functional externalities, institutional collective action (ICA) dilemmas arise primarily due to the political and administrative fragmentation (Feiock 2013). Instead of resorting to the central government for solutions, local governments can choose to coordinate with each other in a variety of ways to overcome collective inaction dilemmas. Scholars in public administration have long recognized the importance of interlocal agreements in the delivery of public services (Atkins, 1996; Carr, LeRoux, & Shrestha, 2009; Chen & Thurmaier, 2009; Thurmaier & Wood, 2002; Andrew, 2009), Zeemering (2008) describes the interlocal agreements (ILAs) as an “innovative governance arrangement” and one of the crucial “features of contemporary local government management.” ILAs can take many forms, ranging from an informal “handshake” agreement to elaborate contracts structured. Interlocal agreements enhance regional cooperation by integrating activities vertically and horizontally among different units of government and enable local governments to cope with problems arising from a polycentric governance system (Carr et al., 2009; Thurmaier & Wood, 2002).Feiock and Scholz(2010) suggested ILAs provide self-organizing governance mechanisms to reduce service costs and increase benefits through collaboration. As a typical way of cooperative governance of urban agglomeration, joint meetings play an important role in urban agglomeration cooperation. As the most important form of coordination, joint meetings are usually used between multiple jurisdictions in China to reduce transaction cost and mitigate collaboration risk. We seek to identify and better understand self-organizing coordination mechanisms embedded in formalized agreements. Specifically, we are interested in understanding characteristics of interlocal joint meetings, why did these mechanisms emergence, and what factors influence on the nature of self-organizing coordination. This paper uses 2006-2015 joint meetings data collection on local actors at city level of Yangtze River Delta, which is a typical collaborative region in China, to verify the evolution trend of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. Through the verification, we found that the Yangtze River Delta has formed a typical institutional arrangement to promote bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, but Jing-Jin-Ji Region is still in the previous stage of cooperation.

Explorting Interlocal coolaboration mechanism in Korea and Institutional collective action framework

Hyung Jun Park - hjpark72@skku.edu - Sungkyunkwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Richard Feiock - rfeiock@fsu.edu - Florida State University - United States

JIYE JU - joojy7120@gmail.com - Sungkyunkwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Considering the growing economic and social uncertainty, administrative dilemmas of limited resources, diverse demands of residents, complexity and interconnectedness of local development planning, regional collaboration has been important elements of local governance. Collaboration among multiple local authorities can managed more efficiently facilities or delivered public services. Although interlocal cooperation and regional collaboration allows localities to achieve better results than they could alone, they are not always success because of traction cost and institutional collective action problems.

We review of literature review of institutional collective action mechanism and regional collaboration cases of Korea. We classify the types of regional collaboration by institutional collective action mechanism.  We also can find relation between types of mechanism and what types of policy or service area, how many local governments participated in. Next we examine what factors facilitate or be successful to collaboration. Data get from mail survey of local government officials who are responsible for implementing regional development as well as in-depth interview. Zero inflated poison model and Negative binomial model be used for this finding.

Nonprofits and Environmental Policy Networks in Northeast Asia

Mary Alice Haddad - mahaddad@wesleyan.edu - Wesleyan University - United States

This paper focuses on the role of nonprofit organizations in facilitating the development of Institutional Collective Action in Northeast Asia. Focusing on the issue area of the environment, it argues that nonprofit organizations play important roles in developing the coordinating networks that facilitate policymaking among diverse policy actors and fragmented governmental authority structures.

 

In order to tease out the mechanics of how nonprofit organizations are using networks to facilitate Institutional Collective Action, the author conducted fieldwork in China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan and created two new datasets that include (a) 300 environmental organizations in the region and (b) 200 environmental advocacy events from around the world.  Based on these data, this paper will discuss three types of public-private networks created by nonprofits in Northeast Asia that facilitate the development of environmental policy:  1) Hub-and-spoke networks, in which nonprofits create a “hub” that connects diverse actors from the public, private, and corporate sectors through organizational membership and/or by hosting events.  2) Horizontal networks in which the nonprofits connect similar actors (e.g., municipal officials) for the purpose of piloting sustainability projects and disseminating best practices.   3) Vertical networks in which the nonprofits connect local and central government officials in ways designed to enhance the political power of pro-environmental officials in their negotiations with other parts of their own government.

 

None of these networks conform to many of the basic assumptions found in the policy-making literature, which require policy actors to have a single institutional affiliation and an identifiable set of hierarchically organized preferences for which they negotiate (Bosso, 2005; Dalton, 1994; Eisner, 2006; Keck & Sikkink, 1998; Kingdon, 1984; Schreurs, 2002; Vig & Kraft, 2013).   Rather, many of the actors in these policy networks have numerous social, political, and professional networks rather than a clearly defined institutional affiliation, which in turn lead to diverse rather than narrow policy preferences.   Therefore, the Institutional Action Framework (Feiock 2013) serves as a more appropriate theoretical starting point to explain these complex processes.

 

Thus, this paper has two main goals:  First, it aims to offer new empirical information about the ways that environmental organizations in Northeast Asia use network-creation strategies to promote pro-environmental policy creation and dissemination.  Second, it seeks to contribute to the Institutional Collective Action framework literature by developing new theoretical tools that are better able to cope with policy actors who have multiple institutional roles, diverse policy interests, and are operating in a wider range of political and cultural contexts than those found in North America and Europe, the most common source for theories about environmental policymaking.

 

Institutional Collective Action Towards Climate Change Adaptation in the Philippines

Rizalino Cruz - rizal.cruz@gmail.com - National College of Public Administration and Governance, University of the Philippines - Philippines

Richard Feiock - rfeiock@fsu.edu - Florida State University - United States

Advancing the climate change agenda presents a continuing challenge to institutional actors—e.g., national and local governments, civil society organizations—as each has its own agenda to promote, jurisdiction to protect, constituent preferences to consider, and limited resources to spend.  The need for collective action among these institutional actors is becoming more evident as the effects of climate change go beyond territorial boundaries, functional and service areas, policy domains, and political timeline.  It is a critical ingredient to climate policy as these actors are the ones with the organization, resources, capacity, and authority to make an impact and sustain efforts in the long run.   Achieving collective action among these institutional actors, however, remains an issue.  Despite the need for collective action to combat climate change, efforts have been uneven and wanting.

 

The paper examines underlying collective action dilemmas facing local governments in the Philippines.  It seeks to understand the barriers to collective action among local governments, the mechanisms instituted for integration and enforcement, and the effects of inter-local collaboration on participating organizations and the climate change agenda.  The study applies the Institutional Collective Action (ICA) framework (Feiock, 2013) as theoretical lens to explain what collective action dilemmas composite actors face, why they cooperate, and how they self-organize to deal with those dilemmas.   The framework can provide new perspectives and insights into climate change issues.  Thus far, the framework has been applied to resource management, local economic development, regional planning, public safety, emergency management, land use, and service delivery in metropolitan areas in the United States.

 

Two cases are developed for the study.  The first case examines the experience of the Allah Valley Landscape Development Alliance (AVLDA) in the provinces of Sultan Kudarat and South Cotabato in Mindanao.  The AVLDA is a multi-sectoral alliance of 13 local government units, national government agencies, non-governmental organizations formed in 2003 to protect and preserve the Allah Valley landscape (i.e., watershed, rivers, and lakes) so to minimize the vulnerabilities of local communities and increase their resilience to natural disasters, such as flooding, earthquakes, and landslides.   The second case deals with the Lanuza Bay Development Alliance (LBDA), which was formalized in 2004 by seven local government units to protect the diversity of marine and coastal resources in Lanuza bay in Surigao del Sur province in Mindanao.   The bay has come under threat from destructive fishing, siltation and degradation due to upland activities like mining and illegal logging.  Data will be collected and analyzed through various sources, such as expert consultation, interviews, focus group discussions, archival research and document review.  The cases will examine the collective action dilemmas, the facilitating and impeding factors of inter-local collaboration, and the responses of local governments.  They will be used to identify critical variables and their relationships and develop propositions that can be tested empirically for future research.  

 

 

Feiock, R. C. (2013). The Institutional Collective Action Framework. The Policy Studies Journal, 41(3), 397–425.

 

Session 2

Discussants

SANG OK CHOI - sangchoi@korea.ac.kr - Korea University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Liming Suo - dinastysuo@126.com - China

Dynamics of Political Homophily in Intergovernmental Emergency Management Networks

Kyujin Jung - kjung1@korea.ac.kr - Korea University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Jungwon Yeo - Jungwon.Yeo@ucf.edu - University of Central Florida - United States

KyungWoo KIM - Kyungwoo.Kim@unt.edu - United States

This research aims to investigate the dynamics of political homophily in intergovernmental emergency management networks from 2012 to 2014 i.e., before and after a disaster. While much has examined political factors which mitigate institutional collective actions, few have identified the effect of political homophily on collaborative emergency management in accordance with a case of national disasters. By employing a separable temporal exponential-family random graph model (STERGM), we test the effect of political homophily based on elected mayors' party on formation and dissolution of local governments’ emergency management in forms of preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation over a period of two years. The analysis results show that the presence of political homophily and value homophily in collaborative emergency management. More importantly, we find that local governments with a mayor affiliated in the ruling party and with common political affiliation in metropolitan governments have a high tendency in forming and persisting joint activities with similar governments. The findings imply that homophily based on mayors' political party such as conservative and liberal parties is more effective in emergency preparedness network while homophily based on a region is more dominant in emergency response network.

UNIVERSALISATION OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION:CHALLENGES OF POLY GOVERNANACE

KAPPEY YADAGIRI - yadagiri.kappey@gmail.com - CENTER FOR ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL STUDIES - India

Introduction

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, representing the consequential legislation to the Constitutional (86th Amendment) Act, 2002, was enforced with effect from 1st April, 2010.The RTE Act secures the right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighborhood school. The Act stipulates the modalities for the provision of free and compulsory education for all children’s under article 21(A) of the Indian constitution and its make education a fundamental right of every child enforceable by law with bounding responsibility of government with lays down the norms and standards relating to pupil teacher ratios, buildings and infrastructure, school working days and teacher working hours. This act brought in the expected changes in the educational scenario of the country with specific reference to the primary education requires a critical examination given the fact that India as per UNDP report-2012 is ranked136 out of 187 countries as per literacy rate of the countries at the global level .It was recognized that the achievement of the norms and goals of the Act-depends on how responsively and collectively the school education system as a whole works towards the realization of universalisation of elementary education under the provisions of RTE-Act.  Similarly it was experienced implementation of the act calls for high levels of coordination and collaboration, participation among the policy maker’s educational administrators, field functionaries and teaching community associating with community.

The Right to Education act-2009-10-Some of the key governance concerns and constrains in A.P

1.School dropout rate is 5.7% for every annual at primary level.(DISE-13)

2.The state has 80,109 school management committees with 2.4 million members covering; all government schools, but there level of participation in the school development plan is very low. (Dise-13)

3.Within the state there is difference among the districts in their ability to take on monitoring and implementation. (”Elementary failure In India” (Down to Earth magazine Sep 30, 2013)

4. Lack of coordination among various deportments that directly or indirectly deals with the effective implementation of RTE-Act.( Karthik Muralidharan (4/2013) “Priorities for primary education policy in India’s 12th five year plan “NCEAR Brooking India policy forum-2013.)

5 At the district level and mandal level poor monitoring by officials is leading to create lack of operational accountability and responsibility among the dischargers.( NUEPA &  Save the Children & MHRD(2012) study paper on “ School management for quality inclusive education and decentralized school governance”)

Objectives of the study

The present study of "universalization of elementary education-challenges of poly governance" is an attempt to take an account of state of affairs of elementary education in AndhraPradesh based on appropriately selected sample schools.

Major objectives of the study are:

Analyze critically the functioning of elementary education system and their accountability and management.
Examine the present parallel and poly administrative system with the intervention of Right to Education Act -2009, in terms of its legal and policy framework in regards to deliverance of governance and its impact on the functioning of SMC.
Examine the preparedness, involvement and participation of various administrative institutions ,community in ensuring and imparting elementary education
Methodology

Data quantities and qualitative from both primary and secondary sources will be collected for the purpose of the study. public schools will be select for intensive field work, with  consider the nature of the study; my research will follow case study method, covers all components of education governance and various stakeholders like Primary Schools and administrative units. The data will collect about the functioning style of different institutions through school Records, discussion with head-teacher and other teachers and children’s in the schools and members of community.

How it fits with this panel?

Every other day children working at roadside restaurants, in people’s homes, on the roads and in tea stalls to pick these children up and put them in school is hardly as easy as it sounds. To begin with, rescue of child labourers and punishing the employer is the work of the Labour Ministry and the police. The responsibility of bringing children to schools and providing them quality education is the work of the Human Resource Development Ministry. Then again, monitoring implementation of the RTE Act is the responsibility of the child rights commissions in each state, which are under the Women and Child Development Department. As of now, not all states have even notified the RTE rules. It is crucial therefore that the efforts of all these agencies are coordinated for the larger goal of providing education to all children to become a reality

 

K.Yadagiri

Research Scholar/Fellow (ICSSR)

Center for Economic and Social Studies (CESS)

Hyderabad,Telangana State, India-500016.

Mobile No: +91-9160973794, 7036015995

Email Id: yadagiri.kappey@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

FROM ORDER TO COMPLEXITY PARADIGM: WHAT CAN COMPLEXITY DO FOR LAND USE AND SPATIAL PLANNING POLICY MANAGEMENT IN INDONESIA

Meita Ahadiyati Kartikaningsih - meitakartika@yahoo.com - National Institute of Public Administration - Indonesia

 

As policy planning and implementation involves various stakeholders from Central and Local Government, intergovernmental problems can be found across the agencies generating policy incoherence in land use and spatial planning policy in Indonesia. This study highlights the policy problem of multi sectors relations which generates policy incoherence in land use and spatial planning policy which in turn has undermined the policy effectiveness and the capacity to mobilize resource among multiple agents with different interests.

Government Effort to manage land use and spatial planning policy is usually rely on 'order' paradigm through institutional collective action mechanism. Paradigm of order in land use and spatial planning policy will be critically analyzed in comparison with the idea of complexity framework and public policy. Complexity paradigm implies that public policy actors must continually and flexibly combine rational and interpretive strategies in public policies.  This paper discusses what the idea of complexity and complexity tools can do for cross cutting management of land use and spatial planning policy in Indonesia.

 

 

 

Key words: Complexity, Policy Incoherence, Intergovernmental Relationship, Land Use and Spatial Planning Policy      

STRUCTURAL EMBEDDEDNESS AND RELATIONAL EMBEDDEDNESS IN EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT NETWORKS: AN INSTITUTIONAL COLLECTIVE ACTION FRAMEWORK

Minsun Song - ms11an@my.fsu.edu - Florida State University - United States

Kyujin Jung - kjung1@korea.ac.kr - Korea University - Korea, (South) Republic of

The study aims to investigate the effect of embeddedness, defined as a property of interdependent relations in which organizations are integrated in a network on the level of collaboration risk emerging from relational uncertainty. A case of emergency management including interorganizational collaboration is used as a lens through which to understand to the role of embeddedness in disaster networks to extend the knowledge of collaboration risk within an institutional collective action framework. Despite an effort on understanding structural effects on network governance, risk embedded in collaborative arrangements has yet to be systematically explored. By modeling OLS analysis with 69 organizations engaged in emergency management operations in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea, I hypothesized and test the effect of relational and structural embeddedness on the level of collaboration risk that an organization perceives. The results show that both structural and relational embeddedness facilitate organizations to mitigate perceived collaboration risk, implying that reachability secures relief of relational risk and commitment relationship binds the participants more tightly.

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