T01P03 - Roles of Trust in Policy Process

Topic : Policy Process Theories

Panel Chair : Hyung Jun Park - hjpark72@skku.edu

Panel Second Chair : MINHYO Cho - chomh@skku.edu

Objectives and Scientific Relevance of the panel

Call for papers

Session 1 Coexistence & Trust I (SSK)


Hyung Jun Park - hjpark72@skku.edu - Sungkyunkwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

MINHYO Cho - chomh@skku.edu - Sungkyunkwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Creating organisational trust: A perspective of the South African public service.

enaleen Draai - enaleen.draai@nmmu.ac.za - Nelson Mandela Matropolitan University - South Africa

Trust in service delivery is critical to the legitimacy with which the organisation and its officials are perceived. Trust ascribed to an organisation is therefore both individual as perceived by a singular client and collective in respect of the nature and scope the organisation in service delivery (Heitzmann and Marson, 2007: 550)
Organisational trust is relational and interactional as well as defined by managerial culture that fosters collegial cooperation and excellence but intolerant to maladministration (Franks 2014: 52). Furthermore, managerial insight that is defined not only by knowledge and skill but also by institutional a memory that allows managerial benchmarking and development of a sense of self-awareness as well as foresight and that leads to understanding the opportunities and risks in facilitating service delivery effectively and efficiently.
South Africa is a young representative democracy and a developmental state. Trust in governance structures is paramount for sustainable political stability. The structure of the public service constitutes three spheres that include national, provincial and local government. The public service has experienced significant transformation since the dawn of democracy in 1994. Trust in the political milieu and public service to provide effective and efficient services is particularly important to sustain good governance. However, trust in the public service has often been in question as evidenced by service delivery protests, low levels of client satisfaction, corruption and maladministration (Kroukamp 2016:109). Trust in local government has ebbed very low while trust in national government has ebbed low. The citizen experience of service delivery and consequent perceptions of trust in the public service has been contentious.
The South African government, in terms of its statutory mandates as well as the Bill of Rights, of the Constitution of 1996, is required to enable a satisfactory quality of life for its citizens. Trust held by citizens in the professional competence of the public service has often been contentious as defined by experience and perception of performance.
The South African government introduced policy and strategy reform that require employee and citizen engagement to allow for the development of relational and interactional trust. The policy and strategy reform implemented places emphasis on trust creating and trust restoring initiatives. These initiatives identify citizens and officials as key role players in the co-production of improved organisational trust. The citizen is identified as a key stakeholder in the service delivery value chain to guide and improve the experience and perception of service delivery output and outcome to allow for improved trust organisational.
This paper will refer to aspects of organisational trust as relevant to the public service. The paper address the following question: What is a trustworthy organisation?
Further, contextualise the importance of organisational trust within a developmental context. Refer to policy and statutory prescripts that places emphasis on trust creating and trust restoring initiatives. However, question and highlight the environmental dynamics that may lead only to compliance and not necessarily the crux of the policy objectives that specifies effective and efficient output and outcome. Lastly refer to lessons learnt specifically from environmental factors that necessitates policy change.

Dynamism of Intergovernmental Conflicts and Cooperation In the Operation of a Non-preferred Public Facility

Sang Joon Shin - sangjoon415@gmail.com - SungKyunKwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Lee Sook Jong - sjleepaik@gmail.com - SungKyunKwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

This case study analyzed the changes of policy networks and private stakeholders’ participation in operating the landfill site of wastes from several Seoul metropolitan areas. South Korean national or wider regional public projects involve multiple local governments, causing either conflicts or cooperation among them. In most of public projects, the interests of involved governments are different from one another and thus conflicts among them arise usually in the early stage. However, governments tend to negotiate and their conflicts come to close in the implementation stage of public projects. In this process, the government roles once advocating local residents are replaced by the ones managing specific issues surrounding the operation of a public facility. These changes in the intergovernmental relations influence the public-private policy networks as well as the local residents participation to change.

The Seoul Metropolitan Waste Landfill Site, which is located in Incheon Seo-gu, is managed by four government organizations: the Seoul City Government, the Gyeonggi Provincial Government, the Incheon City Government, and the Ministry of Environment.. This Waste Landfill Site was planned to be used from 1992 to 2016, but in December 2014, the four governments formed the four-party consultative group and agreed to use the Site for an extended period until the alternative landfill site is secured.

The conflicts surrounding the Seoul Metropolitan Waste Landfill Site can be divided into 3 periods: the conflict initiation period, the conflict escalation period, and the conflict stalemate period. Throughout these periods, several things are noticeable. First, the independent authority of government actors over the operation of this Landfill Site was the important factor in shaping policy networks of each period. Second, the evolving intergovenmental cooperation weakened the participation level of private stakeholders despite their forged coalition. Third, by being faithful to the managerial role in operating the waste disposal program, the government parties intensified the conflicts with local residents. One thing to note is that, since the adjacent two cities and one province in the Seoul metropolitan area are interdependent in responding to common problems of waste disposals, they had the difficulty in terminating the use of the Landfill Site.

The Governmental Governance and Trust in Government in the Process of Chinese State Governance ——Investigation based on the Perspective of Policy Process

Wang Jiayan - wangjiayan89@126.com - Nanjing Normal University - China

Abstract: Trust in government is the emotional tie to uphold the mutual cooperation and co-governance of state between the government and citizens. Building the trust in government is also the inevitable requirement of comprehensively deepen reform under the condition of Chinese socialist market economy. In the practice of the governmental governance, the publicity nature of government and it’s maintenance of public interest are reflected in the process of public policy. In the transition period of China, public policies can’t always meet the citizens’ expectations of the government duo to the deviation, to some extent, of publicity nature of public policies, which in turn leading to the pessimistic situation of the governmental credibility. Specifically, the disorder of elite decision-making and the weak public opinion aggregation, the disadvantages of cross-use of the bureaucratic mode and mobilization pattern in the process of policy implementation, as well as achievements championship under “pressure-type system”, constitute the policy logics behind the current pessimistic situation of trust in Chinese government.


Key words: Governmental Governance; Trust in Government; Public Policy; Policy Process; Publicity

Locating trust relations in the Australian policy process

Yvonne Haigh - Y.Haigh@murdoch.edu.au - Murdoch University - Australia

Peter Wilkins - pewi.peter@gmail.com - Curtin University - Australia

Trust and accountability are key qualities that underpin the public policy process. This paper situates these core qualities in line with evolving literature on new public management and governance, with a specific emphasis on the role of ‘watchdog agencies’ in the Australian policy process. The paper demonstrates that trust and accountability are inextricably linked, however, these agencies utilise different forms of expertise and knowledge in conditioning the environment to engender trust between government and citizens. Watchdog agencies, also referred to as integrity agencies are central to the transmission of expertise and knowledge of appropriate, effective and lawful policy processes. The paper positions these agencies as conduits between citizens, public servants and policy makers. This paper draws on three cases studies from Australian public sector agencies as a form of comparison between the dynamics necessary for enhancing a range of trust relations. The paper examines a range of cases from Auditors’ General, Ombudsman offices and anti-corruption agencies across Australia in the period 2006 - 2014. These agencies specialise in scrutinising the behaviour and decision making of public figures which reinforces the nature of these agencies as independent ‘watchdogs’ and agencies that aim to promote trust and accountability in the broader public. As agencies that enact legitimised review processes there is little understanding however as to the knowledge and expertise each agency brings to ensuring trust is a key element of the policy process. The case studies highlight different aspects of the dynamics around trust, these include the role of systems, the importance of familiarity and the significance of context. The paper draws on three regimes of trust – institutional, calculus and relational (Bouckaert 2011) as a way to examine the different conditions that contribute to trust across multiple levels of society. The paper examines a selection of departmental governance frameworks, Annual Reports and changes to the role of the Auditor General as a primary data source. The paper argues therefore that trust functions on multiple levels and through multiple processes which have significant implications for the development of sound policy processes within and across agencies and the broader society.

The relationship of trust and voting behavior in El Salvador elections

Isabel Buechsel - isabel_buechsel@yahoo.com - Democratic Literacy Project - United States

Empirical evidence shows that Social Capital, characterized by individual involvement in a variety of civic organizations, has positive effect on institutional effectiveness.  One of the six dimensions of social capital is generalized trust.  This study collected data from 377 individuals immediately after issuing their vote during the latest presidential elections in El Salvador.  


Utilizing questions from Grootaert et al.'s 2004 instrument to measure the six dimensions of Social Capital, the study found a positive correlation between the the degree of trust individuals expressed towards members of the organizations in which they participated and the expectation that their vote would make a difference in society at large.    


Session 2


Taewoo Nam - namtaewoo@gmail.com - Sungkyunkwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Kyujin Jung - kjung1@korea.ac.kr - Korea University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Dynamics of Multi-level Policy Process and Multiple Stream Framework: Matching between politic stream and problem fit

Hyung Jun Park - hjpark72@skku.edu - Sungkyunkwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

JIYE JU - joojy7120@gmail.com - Sungkyunkwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

JIHYUNG LEE - goldman159@naver.com - Sungkyunkwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Policy implementation has been performed in various ways across levels of government. To study why policies are implemented differently through policy decision or change, scholars in the field of policy or public administration have worked with a certain or in conjunction with diversity of approaches. The multiple streams approach developed by John Kingdon has been used in policy implementation, recently, since acknowledgement of policy agenda and policy decision. On the basis of this approach, this study suggests politic stream and problem stream have important influence on the type of implementation. Politic stream is defined as a political pressure from the center government, problem streams is translated in a concept of problem fit. These two streams can create four types of scenario of policy implementation. Each scenario explain how a type of policy implementation is formed through all policy making process from agenda to implementation by three streams: politic stream, problem stream, policy stream. To test how three streams effect the type of policy implementation under the model this study designed, existing three policy cases which are implemented and changed in Korea are examined. The result of empirical analysis for all cases support that political pressure and problem fit can shape the type of policy implementation. The findings provide a predictability of a type of implementation of a certain policy during policy making and implies how to promote a policy in all policy process to make more reasonable or effective implementation.

Wage discrimination by national origin: Using Oaxaca decompositions

Mingil Kim - bixub15@gmail.com - Korea, (South) Republic of

MINHYO Cho - chomh@skku.edu - Sungkyunkwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

This article analyze wage discrimination in labor market of Asian immigrants using 「2012 National Multicultural Family Survey」. 「2012 National Multicultural Family Survey」 is designed to gain insight for the immigration policy from research of marriage immigrants` life. We focus on discrimination between immigrants group by national origin rather than discrimination between Korean-immigrants which groups have different status in labor market. The discrimination between immigrants is hardly analyzed in Korea, so this article gives deepened understanding of immigrants in labor market. We classified immigrants group by national origin. There are Korean Chinese, Chinese, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino and other south-east Asians.

There are two types of discrimination in labor market. First, immigrants experience discrimination when they participate in labor market. Because of discrimination, immigrants usually get a low quality job like service worker and elementary worker. Second type of discrimination is wage differences in same job area. Immigrants earn lower income than other workers who have similar job with immigrants. To analyze these two types of discrimination, we make two models. First model controlled types of occupation, and second model did not controlled types of occupation. After we analyze these two models, we decide to draw policy implications through first model. Because, most of literatures controlled types of occupation when they analyze wage discrimination. And according to results, most of discrimination is occurred in same job area.

 To analyze wage discrimination, we consider employment factors, human capital factors, social capital factors and policy factors. First, we use regression analysis to identify the factors that affect to monthly wage.  Human capital factors have positive effect on monthly wage in all groups. But, Job experience in mother country have negative effect in Vietnamese and Japanese case. This effect is one of the evidence that there is imperfect transmission of human capital between countries. Social capital factors have different effect on monthly wage. For example, social capital factors related to Korean of Korean Chinese and Japanese have positive effect on wage, but same factors of Chinese have negative effect on monthly wage. Next, we compared immigrants group based on Korean Chinese by Oaxaca decomposition, and controlled employment attributes, personal characteristics, human resources, social resources and policy support to estimate net wage discrimination. Results indicates Filipinos are most discriminated group and south-east Asians and Vietnamese are discriminated in sequence compared to Korean Chinese. Filipinos lose their income almost 90,000 won, south-east Asians lose almost 60,000 won, Vietnamese lose 25,000 won by discrimination.

  We conclude that these discrimination is affected by immigrants` language and culture background. Korean Chinese who has most similar language and culture background has wage premium compared to other immigrant groups. Vietnamese are influenced by the Confucianism culture, so their degree of discrimination is low, and Filipino who do not have any common language and culture background with Korean experience most severe discrimination.

Influence of government justice perception on citizens’ trust in government: With mediating effects of perception on public conflicts

Joohyun Kim - wngusakak@naver.com - Korea, (South) Republic of

Lee Sook Jong - sjleepaik@gmail.com - SungKyunKwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

This study analyze how citizens’ perception of government justice influences on their trust in government, and measures if citizens’ perception of public conflicts mediates between these two variables. Perception of government justice was measured by two elements of law enforcement agencies, police and court, and civil service provided by administrative agencies. This study found that both perceptions on government justice and government-civic conflicts have a significant influence on trust in government. Citizens’ perception of public conflicts has a slightly weak influence on government trust, but a statistically significant influence on trust in government. On the basis of these results, we can suggest that government should perform its service and law enforcement fairer to get citizens’ trust in government. In particular, government needs to show its ability when managing and resolving public conflicts to boost citizens’ thinking that their government is just and trustworthy.


[Key words: government justice, trust in government, public conflict]

Why should I cooperate with them? Distance, distrust and the challenges of security public policies in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro.

Karl Magno - magnok@gmail.com - University of Erfurt - Germany

Cooperation is a central feature of human life and all its activities. In their public or private lives, humans share and collaborate, associate and contribute, diffusing burdens of a sizable task or a lonesome existence. Social capital is born out of these connections among individuals: It is the social (and necessarily collective) benefits derived from individual’s collaboration. It is what made societies overcome the restraints of limited familial economic relations and leap to a modern model of production. In contemporary societies, policymakers must assume a reasonable level of cooperation and social trust while designing public policies, for they are fundamental parts of the viability and potential success of their endeavor. Where the level of trust and cooperation is low, policy implementation is costlier and policymakers must internalize these hurdles and devise mechanisms to offset this issue.


The challenges for the development and implementation of security public policies in Brazil are manifold. From the country’s failure to organize a national police registry to its difficulties to investigate a representative share of its almost 60 thousand murder cases per year, Brazil has been an interesting case for the implementation and analysis of innovative security public policies.


Trust in government is a hard sell in the favelas. From the beginning of the twentieth century, they evolved from a pile of huts and improvised shacks to massive urban communities with a combined population greater than all but four Brazilian states in almost complete absence of the state in any form. The institutional arrangement of Rio de Janeiro’s favelas and hills challenge the Weberian assumption that modern and stable states are able to claim monopoly on the legitimate use of force within given borders, as drug cartels and militiamen have effectively ruled large pieces of the favelas’ territory.


Data collected by surveys measuring the population general approach to trust and related subjects, such as the World Values Survey (WVS) and the General Social Survey (GSS), consistently show Brazil at the bottom of the list. In the favelas, where interpersonal trust is unusually high, trust in the government as a force for good and in public policy as an engine for improvement in one’s life conditions remain very low. This paper will analyze the problems encountered in the formulation and implementation of security public policies in Brazil. More specifically, it will analyze these challenges as they appeared in the implementation of the Pacifying Policing Units (UPPs) in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, where cooperation and trust between citizens and state agents is rare, suspicion is the norm and policy effectiveness is severely hindered by constant conflicts, miscommunication and mistrust between these two groups.

”Some piece is missing” – Trust in planning for urban Infill. Case Finland, Tampere.

Markus Laine - markus.laine@uta.fi - University of Tampere - Finland

Helena Leino - helena.leino@uta.fi - University of Tampere - Finland

In this paper we examine how trust (or distrust) is generated and fostered in planning for urban infill in Finland Tampere. Applying the concept of trust we analyze the different forms of trust and situations where trust surfaces one way or another in the planning process of the Tammela district. Our analysis reveals how the new kind of ambiguous planning situation may on the one hand lead to the loss of trust, and on the other hand create opportunities for reinforcing trust. The results will help to direct attention to the construction of trust in the planning processes for urban infill.


In modern societies, trust is often, “generalized trust”, as individuals do something for general good, because they trust that they own actions will effect positively to communal relations (Newton 1999, 8Extensive academic discussion has developed a few conceptual tools for examining various reasons why trust in other people seems to make sense: calculation, experience, emotions and socialisation. However, the understanding about trust as a relational concept is still underdeveloped. As a result, trust is often handled as an end-product rather than ongoing process (Fredriksen 2014, 168). In the case of planning and urban infill trust is tied to present circumstances, but also past experiences, i.e. habituses of the actors ( see Bourdieu, 1984, 170).


In this paper, the aim is to combine Tait´s (2011) understanding of trust in planning to relational understanding about trust (Frediksen 2014) in order to better understand urban infill situation from a civic perspective in Tammela, Tampere, Finland. In the case of the housing companies in Tammela, the first reaction to the infill plans was based on previous experience as the underdog reacting to urban planning. Understanding of the new situation where the housing company and the resident are decision making subjects creates space for slow thinking and reflection, instead of fast instinctive response ”they are going to walk over us” based on previous experiences. Trust emerges from the individual or groups position in the terrain of social, economic, political and cultural fields. Based on our analysis we can add that of special importance are also previous experiences of one's or group's own capabilities of action on urban planning  and other fields of social action, and an understanding how to tackle new situations by flexibly expanding one's own repertoire of action. Therefore the analytical result of the forthcoming article is that in addition to the four types of trust categorised by Tait (2011) and Swain and Tait (2007) (1 rational, calculative trust to advance one's or group's own interests, 2 interpersonal trust trust based on personal bonds and interaction, 3 trust in institutions and abstract systems based on the position of the actor or institution in the field of societal ideologies and 4 trust in values and norms institutions and abstract systems) there is a fifth kind of trust is emphasised in the context of urban infill: the housing company members trust (or distrust) in their enhanced relational position in the field.

Session 3


SANG OK CHOI - sangchoi@korea.ac.kr - Korea University - Korea, (South) Republic of

David Kasdan - dokasdan@gmail.com - Sung Kyun Kwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Revisiting Dynamics of Social Capital, Government Performance, and Government Trust: Does “Asian Context” Matter?

SANG OK CHOI - sangchoi@korea.ac.kr - Korea University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Kee Hoon Chung - pigul@korea.ac.kr - Korea University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Existing literature generally agree social capital can play an important role mediating between government performance and government trust. Whether such theory holds in Asian context, however, requires greater examination; not only has there not been much empirical investigation, but the findings have not been consistent with many of existing literatures. For example, Kim (2005) finds that social capital was negatively associated with political trust in South Korea, contrary from existing literature that emphasizes a positive effect social capital can have on the performance and trust. While Kim’s finding makes important contribution, yet important questions still remain. Specifically, do existing literatures on this topic show enough empirical evidence to theorize different mechanism in Asia? Reviewing existing literature on this topic, we could not find research that specifically focused on Asia. Second, if such thing as Asian context exists, then what’s the causal mechanism behind it? Although Kim’s research highlights the differing result, its limitation comes from explaining the causal mechanism of why such difference arises.
In this context, this research makes significant contributions to the existing volumes in several ways. First, using more recent dataset, the SAIS-USKI (Johns Hopkins Study of Advanced International Studies, U.S. Korea Institute) survey 2011, this research attempts to validate whether Kim (2005)’s finding holds. Second, we apply more rigorous method to test Kim’s result. In reality, social capital and elements of government performance interact to affect government trust. However, in many literatures, including Kim’s, the effect of interaction has not been incorporated. As a result, the analysis does not incorporate the degree in which social capital mediate government performance, but rather, only examines specific effects of government performance after controlling for social capital. Finally, this research offers an explanation for Asian mechanism. Given the national context of South Korea, different contextual factors may have a stronger explanatory power than social capital affecting government trust. Specifically, since our data comes from South Korea, we employ two contextual factors – political ideology and media perception – that we assess may have stronger effect on perception of government trust than social capital.
Overall, our research makes significant contributions to the existing literatures on integrative model of government trust through offering explanation for different dynamic between social capital, government performance, and government trust.

State to the test of trust: implementation of a public fee exemption policy in non-state facilities in Benin

Jean-Paul Dossou - jdossou80@yahoo.com - Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium - Belgium

In 2009, the Benin government introduced the fee exemption for caesarean section policy for all women with a medical indication in 44 accredited public and private-not-for profit facilities (later extended to 48). Under the policy, government pays a fixed sum of €152 for each caesarean section to the facility. The objective of this study was to assess the adoption of the policy by both types of facilities. The study adopted the realist evaluation approach and used the embedded case study design. We made use of the most comprehensive evaluation data available to date on this policymaking and implementation processes, and collected additional qualitative and quantitative date within the FEMHealth research programme.

Besides the state-owned facilities, government decided to include not-for-profit non-state actors, rather than engaging all the non-state actors, on the basis that the former shared the value of public oriented services and that they thus could be trusted to implement the policy. However, we found that non-state facilities kept charging the patients €45 extra. The analysis shows how implementation of this policy by non-state facilities depends how top-down and bottom-up trust is facilitated.

In contexts where the public administration is seen as too bureaucratic, slow, and unreliable in its financial procedures, managers perceive a fee exemption policy as a threat, especially if out-of pocket payment is the main financing mechanism. In such cases, charging an extra fee is a safety measure, grounded on mistrust in government. To allow full adoption and consequently fully free access o services, as intended by the policy requires trust between non-state actors and government. Trust is likely to be facilitated by three mechanisms: (1) removing the risk of losing resources, for instance by setting up of specialized implementing units, with simple, clear, transparent and fast administrative procedures and refunds; (2) short-term financial loss compensation in case of delayed reimbursements; (3) fairness in resource allocation between public and private hospitals. These measures would increase trust and thus facilitate the full adoption of the policy by non-state facilities. In a context, where public investments in private facilities were absent before the initiation of the policy, such perceived fairness requires equity rather than equality in resource allocation.

This study showed a dynamic interplay between political needs, power and trust at the interface between the public and private health sector in Benin, a low-income country. Trust plays a key role in this interaction and is a vital element for low-income countries to achieve universal health coverage.


Analysis of the difference in students’ academic achievement by district in Seoul: Focused on the neighborhood effect

Ki duck Jung - zzjkd@skku.edu - Korea, (South) Republic of

MINHYO Cho - chomh@skku.edu - Sungkyunkwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

The difference in students’ academic achievement among residences is huge in South Korea. A micro-level factor which influences students’ academic achievement is a student’s family background. Moreover, a student’s school environment includes a student’s peers and teachers who can provide supportive relationships that can increase academic achievement. Yet, one important factor highly influential in explaining a student’s academic achievement remains less well understood: the residence where the student lives. Importantly, what kinds of neighborhood characteristics matter for students’ academic achievement is an unresolved question lacking solid empirical footing. This is critical to understand the difference in students’ academic achievement among districts in Korea. Furthermore, knowing the degree to which neighborhood characteristics influence educational outcomes is important to our understanding the processes that reproduce social inequality. If a specific neighborhood characteristic impacts students’ academic achievement, then can make a policy to resolve the difference of students’ academic achievement among residences and social inequality considering neighborhood effects.


The purpose of this study is to examine the differences in students’ academic achievement according to district in Seoul and to further identify what makes the differences focusing on neighborhood characteristics. We use combined dataset, individual data from the Seoul Educational Longitudinal Study (2015) and resident data from the national official survey. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the sum of language, math and English score with which district Korean students live in. The characteristics according to district are including the average education level and monthly household income of residence, the percentage of having exalted occupation in residence, the capability of collecting information about child’s education, the number of private educational institution, the number of juvenile crime, the local education grant, and the number of adult establishment. We use multiple regression models to analyze the effect of neighborhood characteristics including family background and school environment variables on students’ academic achievement.


Results indicated that the education level of parent in family background and the school satisfaction level in school environment variables have positive effect on a student’s academic achievement; furthermore, the relationship with peers and teachers do not have significant effect on the academic achievement, but students whose parents participate in school activities is more likely to get higher score compared to whose parents do not participate in. Discussing the neighborhood characteristics, the average monthly household income of residence and capability of collecting information about child’s education, how much information that parents can get from others about school or private education, have positive effect on the academic achievement in consideration of family background and school variables. On the other hand, we found that the local education grant negatively affects the academic achievement.

The Influence of Citizens' Political Participation on Their Trust in Government

HAN SEONGMIN - clon96@skku.edu - skku - Korea, (South) Republic of

Lee Sook Jong - sjleepaik@gmail.com - SungKyunKwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

This study aims to answer two questions. One is how much trust the citizens with political interests hold toward their government. Second is how citizens’ political participation influence their trust in government . According to the statistical n analysis of the 2011 survey data, citizens who participated in the public hearings dealing with a region problem had more institutional trust in all of the National Assembly, the government, and the judiciary t. Since the participating rate of public hearings is not high despite this importance, it is desirable to develop some measures to encourage citizens to participate in such activity.

Does trust in politicians and bureaucrats matter for perceived efficiency and effectiveness? A cross-national examination

Taewoo Nam - namtaewoo@gmail.com - Sungkyunkwan University - Korea, (South) Republic of

Many believe that a high level of government performance would increase trust in politicians and public officials. Yet, it is not easy to prove the natural belief. Government performance can be explained in diverse dimensions, which are neither always objective nor number-based. In that governments have considered efficiency and effectiveness as public values and priority missions to be accomplished, efficiency and effectiveness are important components of government performance. Lexicographic or commonly-used understanding of the two terms seems to be easily acceptable, but objectively measuring them is complicated, complex, and almost impossible. Citizen perceptions matter because individual citizens may subjectively evaluate government efficiency and effectiveness based on information and knowledge they have. If judging the level of government efficiency and effectiveness inevitably lies in the area of citizen perception, the government performance components cannot be considered separately from subjective evaluations of political and administrative leaders. In this way, personal perceptions on politics and public administration may exercise a great impact on perceptions on government performance. More specifically, trust in politicians and fairness of public officials may have a positive influence on citizen perceptions of government efficiency and effectiveness.


As such, this study raises an inquiry for empirical examination in a cross-national view: “How do trust in politicians and bureaucratic fairness influence perceptions on government efficiency and effectiveness?”. To answer the question, path models are constructed. The models put trust in politicians and bureaucratic fairness as exogenous variables, transparency in policy making and corruption control as endogenous mediating variables, and government efficiency and effectiveness as endogenous outcome variables. Path analysis examines the following hypotheses: 1) Trust in politicians and bureaucratic fairness influence transparency in policy making, and then transparency in policy making influences government efficiency; 2) Trust in politicians and bureaucratic fairness influence transparency in policy making, and then transparency in policy making influences government effectiveness; 3) Trust in politicians and bureaucratic fairness influence corruption control, and then corruption control influences government efficiency; and 4) Trust in politicians and bureaucratic fairness influence corruption control, and then corruption control influences government effectiveness.


The cross-national examination, employing global-scale indices (sub-indicators of the World Governance Indicator and Global Competitiveness Index), found the following results: 1) Bureaucratic fairness has a direct impact on transparency in policy making and corruption control, but trust in politicians doesn’t; 2) Bureaucratic fairness has a positive impact on perception of government efficiency but not on perception of government effectiveness; and 3) Trust in politicians has a significantly positive influence on efficiency perception but does not have a significant influence on effectiveness perception. Overall, the findings support that trust in politicians and public officials may have reciprocal relationships with government performance such as efficiency and effectiveness. Further research needs to check up a possibility of two-way causality between individual trust and performance perception.

A comparative case study on the policy of government re-organization

Seung-Bum Yang - sbyang@konkuk.ac.kr - Konkuk University - Korea, (South) Republic of

This is a comparative case study that examines how government organizations are created and terminated in response to disaster. Public policy is implemented by government organizations. There are two different views on survival of public organizations. Some believe that government agencies are immortal, while others argue that they are mortal. On the one hand, Kaufman (1976) looked at numerous US federal agencies and concluded that government organizations are in most part immortal. Only a small number of agencies abolished and many other organizations were in fact increasing. One the other hand, Lewis (2002) states that "agencies face significant risks of termination, particularly due to political turnover. When an agency’s opponents gain power, the hazards of agency mortality increase."


This research investigates two disaster cases. The sinking of the Sewol ferry occurred in 2014 in South Korea. The September 11 attacks were terrorist attacks in 2001 in the United States. The two disaster brought totally opposite results in terms of policy of government re-organization. The Korean case produced a sudden demise of the Korean Coast Guard. The American disaster created Homeland Security. The study employs mixed methods to examine the cases and discusses theoretical and practical policy implications.



Kaufman H. (1976) Are Government Organizations Immortal? Washington, D.C.: Brookings.

Lewis D. (2002) The Politics of Agency Termination: Confronting the Myth of Agency Immortality. The Journal of Politics, 64(1), 89-107.


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